Guidelines for Authors


Liberabit: Revista Peruana de Psicología publishes papers related to various areas of psychology, and is aimed at professionals, scholars, and students of behavioral and health sciences. Its purpose is to contribute to the dissemination of researchers’ scientific production in psychology topics, by providing greater visibility to their studies, and to become an important source of consultation and reference in the area. Articles are accepted in English and Spanish.


1. Type of articles 


Manuscripts submitted for publication must be original articles that include:

Original articles: They provide information of a completed research, such as empirical, instrumental and meta-analytic studies. Studies that report secondary analyses of data are also considered original articles, provided that they show results not included or considered in other publications. Manuscripts should keep the following order: introduction, method, results, discussion and references (annexes may be included, if applicable). Maximum length is 8,000 words.
 • Brief original articles: They report the preliminary results of ongoing research discussed in detail. Maximum length is 2,500 words.
Methodological articles: They provide new input on approaches, updates or modifications of existing methods and techniques, be them quantitative, qualitative or mixed, and of statistical programs. The generic structure of this type of article should contain problem approach, procedure description, one or more explained examples, and final comments. Maximum length is 8,000 words.
 • Theoretical articles: They present a new theory, analyze an existing one, and compare the limitations or advantages of a theory with respect to another one. Their structure may be flexible and at the discretion of the author, but the following structure is suggested: introduction (problem approach and relevant aspects considered by the author), subject explanation (paragraphs that allow a better visualization of the subject are considered), discussion (verification of the addressed ideas), conclusions and references. Maximum length is 10,000 words.
 • Letter to the editor: It contributes to the scientific discussion of a specific subject. It includes a critical analysis of any article published in the journal in its last two issues or an important subject that contributes significantly to the journal’s content. Maximum length is 1,000 words and 10 references.


2. Manuscripts format

Manuscripts should be sent to the OJS platform by attaching the pertinent files only in Word format (doc. or docx.), strictly in accordance with publication standards of the American Psychological Association (APA), 6th edition in English and 3rd edition in Spanish.

The file extension should not exceed the number of words indicated for each type of article, excluding the title, author(s), affiliation, abstract, keywords, references and annexes. Submitted manuscripts should be 20 to 25 pages in length using A4 page size, Times New Roman 12-point font, 1.5 line spacing, 2.5 cm margins, and left alignment.

On the first page, the manuscript title (English and Spanish version), authors, affiliation and corresponding authors’ data should be included. Authors should indicate the name, affiliation and e-mail exactly as they want them to appear in the article. On the second page, the abstract (150 to 200 words) and keywords (4 to 6) should be included in Spanish and English.

On the following pages, the complete text is included, adjusted to the type of chosen manuscript format. It should include the introduction, method, results, discussion and references (depending on the type of chosen manuscript).

Tables and figures should be included at the end of the manuscript, one on each page, indicating their correlative order and location in the manuscript. The manuscript content will have a maximum of five tables and/or five figures. Figures may be colored or grey, and should be in jpg format with 300 dpi resolution.

If the work material is subject to copyright, it is the responsibility of the authors to declare it in the manuscript.


3. Guidelines for writing articles

Manuscripts submitted to Liberabit: Revista Peruana de Psicología should have the following structure:

a) Initial part of the manuscript (first page):

i. Title:

• Title of the manuscript in Spanish and English.
• In a sentence format, uppercase and lowercase.
• Between 15 to 25 words


Propiedades psicométricas del Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo (CESQT) en profesionales de la salud italianos: una perspectiva de género

Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory (SBI) in a sample of Italian health professionals: A gender perspective

ii. Authors:

• Given names should be followed by surnames.

a) Juan Pablo Barreyro
b) Irene Injoque-Ricle

• Authors should be separated by commas.


a) Pedro R. Gil-Monte, Sara Viotti, Daniela Converso
b) Adriana V. L. Espósito, Celina Gabriela Korzeniowski, Marina Santini Bertoldi

• Place an asterisk (*) to the corresponding author.


Karina Condea,*

iii. Institutional affiliation

• The first page includes the university and/or institution, followed by the country of the authors. Institutions are separated by semicolons (;).


a) University of Valencia, Spain
b) University of Turin, Italy
c) Research Institute, Faculty of Psychology, University of Buenos Aires; CONICET, Argentina
d) Department of Basic Processes, Research Institute, Faculty of Psychology, University of Buenos Aires; CONICET, Argentina

• The institutional affiliation and the mail of each author should be included in the final part of the manuscript, after references, in the order that appears on the first page.

iv. Abstract

• The abstract should contain the objective of the study, sample, sample characteristics, design, statistics used, treatment or interventions, findings and conclusions. One paragraph should be written in Spanish, and the other one in English.

• The wording should be between 150 to 200 words.

v. Keywords

• Between 4 to 6 words per article, and they should be written in Spanish and English
• It starts with a lowercase letter, separated by commas and ends with a period.


Palabras clave: síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo, CESQT, género, análisis factorial confirmatorio, invarianza factorial, profesionales de la salud.
Keywords: burnout syndrome, SBI, gender, confirmatory factor analysis, factor invariance, health professionals.


b) Manuscript contents

i. Article structure

• Articles should have the following structure:

a) Introduction
b) Method (see item ii)
c) Results
d) Discussion
e) Conflict of interests
f) Ethical responsibility
g) References
h) Data of the author(s) and corresponding author
i) Annexes (optional)

ii. Method

• It should include four sections:

a) Participants:

Detail the sample, number of participants, sociodemographic characteristics of the sample, its obtaining and the degree of representativeness.

b) Instruments:

The name of the instrument followed by the quotation of the author(s) who created and/or adapted the test, examination, etc., should be written. The description of the instrument should explain the characteristics, internal consistency and study results.


Demographic data questionnaire. A questionnaire was designed to collect demographic data of the patients through which they were investigated: sex, age, marital status, level of education, family income and place of residence.
God Locus of Health Control Scale (GLHC, Wallston et al., 1999). The GLHC scale consists of six statements with six-point Likert scale response options ranging from strongly disagree with a value of 1, to strongly agree with a value of 6. Hence, the total score of the scale ranges from 6 to 36 possible points. The internal consistency of the scale was estimated through the alpha coefficient in a sample of patients with rheumatoid arthritis and another sample of patients with systemic sclerosis, with acceptable coefficient results of .87 and .94, respectively.

iii. Tables and figures

• Tables

a) The word “Table” and the number that follows should be in bold and without a period at the end.

b) The title of the table should be placed on the next line, italicized and not bolded, with the first letter capitalized and no period at the end.

c) A note should be included at the end of the table.

• Notes to tables

The word “Notes” should be italicized and followed by a colon; the rest of the text should not be written in italics and should have a period at the end. There are three kinds of notes to tables according to APA guidelines.


ejemplo tabla 1

• In-text wording of tables

In the document, the word “Table” and the number that follows should be written in sentence format and unbolded. Capitalize the first letter.


«La Tabla 2 presenta los estadísticos descriptivos para las escalas y para los ítems del CESQT...»
«El modelo obtuvo un buen ajuste a los datos en los dos subgrupos de la variable género (ver Tabla 2). En la muestra de hombres...»

• Figures

The word “Figure” and the number that follows should be written in bold and italics, with a period at the end. The text to the figures should be written in sentence format and unitalicized. Figures may be colored or grey, and should be in jpg format with 300 dpi resolution.



ejemplo figura 1

• In-text wording of figures

In the document, the word “Figure” and the number that follows should be unbolded. Capitalize the first letter.


«De este modo, se configura un modelo bidimensional que pone en relación los recursos que la empresa ofrece al empleado para moderar las demandas propias de la planificación y ejecución. La interacción entre estas dos dimensiones permite predecir el riesgo de enfermedad relacionado con el estrés y el comportamiento activo o pasivo del individuo a través de cuatro tipos de situaciones psicosociales (Figura 1).»

iv. Citations

• Types of citation

a) In the case of a literal citation consisting of less than 40 words, it should include the page or paragraph number, and be enclosed in quotation marks.


En el estudio de Argüelles-Nava, Dominguez- Lara, Morales-Romero y Lagunes-Córdoba (2017), explican sobre la influencia del tratamiento de la DM2 en los pacientes, «implica cambios significativos en el estilo de vida de quienes la padecen, los mismos que serán emprendidos o no en función de una gran diversidad de factores dentro de los cuales las cogniciones juegan un papel relevante» (p. 260).

b) In the case of a literal citation consisting of more than 40 words, it should be written in another paragraph, indented, without quotation marks; and it should include the page or paragraph number.


En estudios recientes utilizaron el Inventario de Expectativas de Autoeficacia Académica (Hernández, 2018) y los resultados de esta investigación fueron: 

El análisis dimensional arroja que para la dimensión output, la media aritmética es 1,93 puntos, que convirtiéndolo en porcentaje equivale a 64,33%, lo que significa que los estudiantes presentan un nivel medio de confianza para poder realizar exitosamente las actividades académicas orientadas a la producción de información o evidencias. (Hernández, 2018, párr. 49)

c) When citing a source within a source, add the phrase “as cited in” enclosed in parentheses.


En cuanto al alcance del cambio conceptual propiamente dicho, reserva la terminología para los procesos de acomodación o reestructuración fuerte (Carey, como se citó en Oliva, 1999).

d) Analysis, paraphrasing and contextual citations.


En este grupo de pacientes, varios estudios han mostrado consistentemente alteraciones tanto en la capacidad para comprender como para producir prosodia emocional y lingüística (Cohen, Riccio, & Flannery, 1994; Guranski & Podemski, 2015; Harciarek, Heilman, & Jodzio, 2006; Heilman, Leon, & Rosenbek, 2004; Ross & Monnot, 2008; Zaidel, Kasher, Soroker, & Batori, 2002). (...) Es por ello que Snow (2000) afirmó que las evidencias provenientes de pacientes con lesiones del HD no suelen ser concluyentes respecto de una distinción entre prosodia emocional y lingüística.

e) For other types of citations, check APA guidelines.• Citations according to the number of authors
a) In-text citations enclosed in parentheses only include one surname of each author and the year of publication.


...los planteamientos de Rotter (1954) respecto del locus de control interno (LC-I), que hace referencia a que el individuo se cree directamente implicado en la producción de ciertos resultados y por lo tanto el reforzamiento recae en sí mismo.

b) Depending on the wording type, two types of connectors (& – and) are used between the authors’ surnames. There are two citation styles:

- When authors are not enclosed in parentheses:


Guranski y Podemski (2015), sostienen que la prosodia emocional...

- When authors are enclosed in parentheses:


.... tanto en la capacidad para comprender como para producir prosodia emocional y lingüística (Guranski & Podemski, 2015) 

c) In the case of two authors, in-text citations enclosed in parentheses have no comma before the ampersand sign (&).


Se realizó un análisis factorial de grupo múltiple con el programa EQS 6.2 (Bentler & Wu, 2012)
El BFI tiene ventajas como su relativa brevedad (44 ítems), con respecto a otros instrumentos como el NEO-PIR y NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1999)

d) Citations of more than two authors have a comma before the ampersand sign (&).


A pesar de lo anterior, la influencia de la religiosidad sobre la salud ha sido pobremente estudiada en población mexicana (Rivera- Ledesma, López-Lena, & Jiménez-Zavala, 2014)

e) In citations of more than 3, 4 or 5 authors, cite all of them the first time; for subsequent citations, write the surname of the first author followed by et al.


Calderón-De la Cruz, Domínguez-Lara y Arroyo- Rodríguez (2018), explican «La autoeficacia, constructo desarrollado en el marco de la Teoría Social Cognitiva» (párr. 1).

Calderón-De la Cruz et al. (2018) explican que las fuentes son: a) la experiencia de éxito y de dominio, b) la experiencia vicaria mediante la observación de logros y fracasos de los demás, c) persuasión verbal y, d) los estados fisiológicos o de activación emocional (párr. 1).

f) In citations of more than six authors, cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al.


Por otro lado, la prosodia lingüística es utilizada para segmentar las frases habladas al cumplir el rol equivalente a la puntuación para los textos escritos e incluye tres fenómenos: acento léxico, acento enfático y modalidad (Joanette et al., 2008)

Los criterios de inclusión/exclusión para los participantes de los grupos control que se utilizó en el estudio de Ferreres et al. (2007)

 g) In the case of several citations enclosed in parentheses, authors should be ordered alphabetically and separated by a semicolon.


...los comportamientos en salud en poblaciones y condiciones diversas (Moore, 2014; Pomeranz et al., en prensa; Tsimtsiou, Kirana, & Hatzichristou, 2014) y...

h) Authors’ surnames with a hyphen should be kept the same.


«Explicado por Dominguez-Lara (2018) en su investigación...»
«En otros estudios peruanos, Fernández-Arata (2018) explica el uso...»

i) Articles which are under review or unpublished should not be included in citations and references.

j) For other types of citations, check APA guidelines.

v. References

References are included in the antepenultimate page, before the authors’ information, and should be ordered alphabetically.

There are four types of references’ internal order: 1) alphabetical, 2) chronological, 3) alphabetical by title, and 4) author and coauthors.

1) Alphabetical.Entries are arranged in alphabetical order by the surname of the first author followed by the initials of the author’s given name.


Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía. (2011). Panorama de las religiones en México 2010. México: Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Secretaría de Gobernación. Recuperado de 2010.pdf
Jiménez-Corona, A., & Aguilar-Salinas, C. A. (2013). Diabetes mellitus tipo 2 y frecuencia de acciones para su prevención y control. Salud Pública de México, 55(1), 137-143.
Kremer, H., Ironson, G., & Porr, M. (2009). Spiritual and mind–body beliefs as barriers and motivators to HIVtreatment decision-making and medication adherence? A qualitative study. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 23(2), 127–134. doi: 10.1089/apc.2008.0131
 McDonald, R. P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, Estados Unidos: L. Erlbaum Associates.

2) Chronological. It is used to cite multiple works by the same author with different years of publication. List by year of publication, the earliest first.


 Gil-Monte, P. R. (2005). El síndrome de quemarse por el trabajo (burnout). Una enfermedad laboral en la sociedad del bienestar. Madrid: Pirámide.
Gil-Monte, P. R. (2011). CESQT. Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo. Manual. Madrid:  TEA Ediciones.
Gil-Monte, P. R. (2012). Influence of guilt on the relationship between burnout and depression. European Psychologist, 17, 231-236. doi: 10.1027/1016-9040/a000096

3) Alphabetical by title. When the same author has published two or more works on the same year, the suffixes a, b, c should be used to differentiate the references. After the year of publication, they should be ordered alphabetically by title.


Dominguez-Lara, S. (2016a). Datos normativos de la Escala de Procrastinación Académica en estudiantes de psicología de Lima. Evaluar, 16, 20- 30. doi: 10.223/S1137-6627/DD2016000100023
Dominguez-Lara, S. (2016b). Intervalos de confianza en el reporte de la fiabilidad: un análisis necesario. Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra, 39(1), 169-170. doi: 10.4321/S1137-6627/2016000100024

4) Author and coauthors. One-author entries go before those from several authors (regardless of the publication date). References with the second or third coauthor are ordered alphabetically by surname.


Gil-Monte, P. R., Figueiredo-Ferraz, H., & Valdez Bonilla, H. (2013). Factor analysis of the Spanish Burnout Inventory among Mexican prison employees. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 45(2), 96- 104. doi: 10.1037/a0027883
Gil-Monte, P. R., & Manzano-García, G. (2015). Psychometric properties of the Spanish Burnout Inventory among staff nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22, 756- 763. doi: 10.1111/jpm.12255
Gil-Monte, P. R., & Olivares-Faúndez, V. (2011). Psychometric properties of the «Spanish Burnout Inventory» in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 14, 441-451. doi: 10.5209/rev_SJOP.2011.v14.n1.40
Gil-Monte, P. R., & Zúñiga-Caballero, L. C. (2010). Validez factorial del «Cuestionario para la Evaluación del Síndrome de Quemarse por el Trabajo» (CESQT) en una muestra de médicos mexicanos. Universitas Psychologica, 9, 169-178.

References include only one surname followed by the initial of each author’s given name(s).

References of two authors have a comma before the ampersand sign (&).


Dorn, L., & Machin, M. (2004). Learner driving experience questionnaire. Cranfield University, UK and University of Southern Queensland, Australia.

In references of three to seven authors, the ampersand sign (&) should be used between the last two authors.


Falco, A., Piccirelli, A., Girardi, D., Dal Corso, L., & De Carlo, N. (2013). Risky riding behavior on two wheels: The role of cognitive, social, and personality variables among young adolescents. Journal of Safety Research, 46, 47-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jsr.2013.03.002

In references of eight or more authors, the names of the first six authors should be included, followed by an ellipsis (…) and the last author’s name.

Ferreira, D., Silva, A., Pereira, J., Silva, F., Wagner, A., Winckler, C.,... Mello, S. de (2015). Sleep quality and psychobiological aspects of Brazilian Paralympic athletes in the London 2012 pre-Paralympics period. Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 21(2), 168-176. doi: 10.1590/S1980-65742015000200007

Authors’ surnames with a hyphen should be kept the same.


Dominguez-Lara, S. (2018) ... 
Fernández-Arata, M. (2018) ...

References having assigned a DOI do not have a period at the end.


Maldonado, A., Vizeu, B., Giacomozzi, A., & Berri, B. (2017). Representações sociais do cuidado ao idoso e mapas de rede social. Liberabit, 23(1), 9-22. doi: 10.24265/liberabit.2017.v23n1.01
Conde, K., Peltzer, R., Lichtenberger, A., Tosi, L., & Cremonte, M. (2017). Razones para cambiar el consumo de alcohol en universitarios. Liberabit, 23(2), 247-258. doi:

References with a Web site should include the phrase “retrieved from http://…”


Hernández-Ávila, M., Gutiérrez, J. P., & Reynoso- Noverón, N. (2013). Diabetes mellitus en México. El estado de la epidemia. Salud Pública de México, 55(1), 129-136. Recuperado de

Corengia, A., Pita, M., Mesurado, B., & Centeno, A. (2013). La prediccioìn de rendimiento acadeìmico y desercioìn en estudiantes universitarios. Liberabit, 19(1), 101-112. Recuperado de 9_corengia.pdf

Manuscripts under review and unpublished are not accepted.

All references should be cited in the manuscript.

See more reference models of APA guidelines.

vi. Others

• In-text decimals

Decimals are separated by a point both in texts and tables.

• In-text percentages

a) Percentages with decimals are separated by a point (18.5%).

b) There should be no space between the number and the percent sign (18%).

• Superscript, subscript and Greek letters

Superscripts, subscripts and Greek letters are not italicized both in texts and tables. Regarding parameter and statistic symbols, lowercase Greek letters should be used for the former (μ, σ) and italicized Latin letters for the latter (M, SD). (APA, 2010, pp. 121 -125)

• In-text abbreviations

APA guidelines explain the use of different Latin abbreviations in the documents (APA, 2010, pp. 106-112).

• Abbreviation of “number”

The abbreviation for “number” consists of the combination of the uppercase letter “N” with a superscript lowercase letter “o” (N°).

• Thousands and millions

In the documents, thousands and millions are separated by spaces and not comas. A single space is only used to separate thousands when the figure has more than four numbers (e.g., 19 690); when the figure has four numbers, no space is used between thousands (e.g., 1969).

• Zero before a decimal point

Do not use a zero before a decimal point. This rule applies to texts, tables and figures.


0.79 (incorrect)
.79 (correct)

c) Final part of the manuscript (last page)

i. Authors

• Given name and surnames
• Affiliation
• Author’s brief information
• E-mail
• Corresponding author (*)

ii. Notes

The author will submit additional information on the study.


«La investigación que se presenta en este artículo fue realizada con subsidios de la Universidad de Buenos Aires UBACyT 2014-17 Código No 20020130100320BA y de la Agencia Nacional de Promoción Científica y Tecnológica ANPCyT PICT 2011-0826.»

iii. Annexes

Annexes are optional and should have a title and correlative number. They should be referenced in the document and presented at the end of the manuscript.


... en el estudio de Burga-León y Escurra-Mayaute (2017), detallan en sus análisis las sintaxis utilizadas en LISREL y SPSS (ANEXO 3) ...