Psychometric properties of the normative deviance scale in youths

  • Sebastián Jesús Garrido Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Karin Arbach Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Marcos Cupani Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Fernanda Belén Ghío Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Ana Estefanía Azpilicueta Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
  • Valeria Estefanía Morán Facultad de Psicología, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Psicológicas, IIPSI, Unidad Ejecutora CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina
Keywords: antisocial behavior, normative deviance scale, youths, self-control


Background: Antisocial behavior refers to a set of acts that violate the rules established for the coexistence of society. One of the self-report measures to assess this type of behavior is the normative deviance scale (NDS). Objective: Considering that in the Argentine context no studies on the psychometric properties of the scale were found, the present study aimed to analyze the psychometric properties of the scale in a sample of Argentine youths. Method: To this end, a sample of 794 participants aged between 18 and 25 years was collected. A confirmatory factor analysis was performed; the composite reliability was calculated; and the convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity was assessed (using a self-control scale). In addition, the invariance of the factorial structure of the scale was analyzed. Results: The results confirmed the original factorial structure of the scale with no factorial equivalence across the assessed groups regarding the sex. Also, the results showed adequate psychometric properties for most dimensions which make up the instrument. Conclusions: Findings, limitations and further lines of research are discussed.


Download data is not yet available.


American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (2014). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

American Psychological Association (2016). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences, and criminal behavior: Street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40, 403–425. doi: 10.1177/0022427803256071

Bobbio, A., Arbach, K., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2019). Selfcontrol and Deviance: A Test of the General Theory of Crime in Argentina. Victims & Offenders, 14(1),119-142. doi: 10.1080/15564886.2018.1552222

Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research: New York: Guilford.

Byrne, B. (2008). Testing for multigroup equivalence of a measuring instrument: Awalk through the process. Psicothema, 20(4), 872-882.

Bunch, J. M., Iratzoqui, A., & Watts, S. J. (2018). Child abuse, self-control, and delinquency: A general strain perspective. Journal of Criminal Justice, 56, 20-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.09.009

Butchart, A. & Mikton, C. (2014). Global status report on violence prevention, 2014. Technical Report. World Health Organization.

Card, N. A., Stucky, B. D., Sawalani, G. M., & Little, T. D. (2008). Direct and indirect aggression during childhood and adolescence: A meta‐analytic review of gender differences, intercorrelations, and relations to maladjustment. Child development, 79(5), 1185-1229. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01184.x

Chaiyasong, S., Huckle, T., Mackintosh, A. M., Meier, P., Parry, C. D., Callinan, S., ... & Casswell, S. (2018). Drinking patterns vary by gender, age and country‐level income: Cross‐country analysis of the International Alcohol Control Study. Drug and alcohol review, 37, 53-62. doi: 10.1111/dar.12820

Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464-504. doi: 10.1080/10705510701301834

Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233-255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5

Chui, W. H., & Chan, H. C. (2013). The Gendered Analysis of Self-Control on Theft and Violent Delinquency: An Examination of Hong Kong Adolescent Population. Crime & Delinquency, 62(12), 1648–1677. doi: 10.1177/0011128712470992

Cihan, A., & Tittle, C. R. (2019). Self-Control, Sanction Threats, Temptation, and Crime: Examining Contingencies of Self-Control in a Cross-National Context. Crime & Delinquency, 65(4) 555–580. doi: 10.1177/0011128718824939

Coffey, C. A., Cox, J., & Kopkin, M. R. (2018). Examining the Relationships Between the Triarchic Psychopathy Constructs and Behavioral Deviance in a Community Sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 32(1), 57-69. doi: 10.1521/pedi_2017_31_288

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. (2da ed.). Hillsdate, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cuttler, C., Mischley, L. K., & Sexton, M. (2016). Sex differences in cannabis use and effects: a cross-sectional survey of cannabis users. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 1(1), 166-175. doi: 10.1089/can.2016.0010

Dimitrov, D. M. (2010). Testing for factorial invariance in the context of construct validation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 43(2), 121-149.

DiStefano, C., Liu, J., Jiang, N., & Shi, D. (2018). Examination of the weighted Root Mean Square Residual: Evidence for Trustworthiness? Structural Equation Modeling: A multidisciplinary Journal, 25(3), 453-466. doi: 10.1080/10705511.2017.1390394

Eitle, D., Niedrist, F., & Eitle, T. M. (2014). Gender, race, and delinquent behavior: An extension of power-control theory to American Indian adolescents. Deviant behavior, 35(12), 1023-1042. doi: 10.1080/01639625.2014.903756

Etchezahar, E., Prado-Gascó, V., Jaume, L., & Brussino, S. (2014). Validación argentina de la Escala de Orientación a la Dominancia Social. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 46(1), 35-43.

Gaik, L. P., Abdullah, M. C., Elias, H., & Uli, J. (2010). Development of antisocial behaviour. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 7, 383-388. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.10.052

Garrido, S. J., Cupani, M., & Arbach, K. (2017). Application of the rating scale model to examine the psychometric properties of the self-control scale. Psykhe, 26(2), 1-12. doi:10.7764/psykhe.26.2.980

Garrido, S. J., Morán, V., Azpilicueta, A. E., Cortez, F., Arbach, K., & Cupani, M. (2018). Análisis de modelos rivales unidimensionales y bidimensionales de la escala breve de autocontrol en estudiantes universitarios argentinos. Psicodebate. Psicología, Cultura y Sociedad, 18(2), 26-37.

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2011). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference 18.0 Update (11a ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn y Bacon.

Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Gunzler, D. D., & Morris, N. (2015). A tutorial on structural equation modeling for analysis of overlapping symptoms in co occurring conditions using MPlus. Statistics Inmedicine, 34(24), 3246-3280. doi: 10.1002/sim.6541

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.

Hoertel, N., Dubertret, C., Schuster, J.-P., & Le Strat, Y. (2012). Sex Differences in Shoplifting. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 200(8), 728–733. doi:10.1097/nmd.0b013e3182613fbb

Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424-453. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.3.4.424

Kobayashi, E., Sharp, S. F., & Grasmick, H. G. (2008). Gender and Deviance: A Comparison of College Students in Japan and the United States. Deviant Behavior, 29(5), 413–439. doi:10.1080/01900690701598010

Ley de protección de datos 25.326. Boletin oficial de la Republica Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 02 de noviembre de 2000.

Meade, A. W., Michels, L. C., & Lautenschlager, G. J. (2007). Are Internet and Paper-and-Pencil Personality Tests Truly Comparable?: An experimental Design Measurement Invariance Study. Organizational Research Methods, 10(2), 322-345. doi: 10.1177/1094428106289393

Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. (2017a). Informe Anual República Argentina Sistema Nacional de Estadística Sobre Ejecución de la Pena 2017. Recuperado de:

Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos. (2017b). Informe Anual Córdoba Sistema Nacional de Estadística Sobre Ejecución de la Pena 2017. Recuperado de:

Moffitt, T. E. (1993). Adolescence-Limited and Antisocial Behavior: A developmental Taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674-701. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674

Montero, I., & León, O. G. (2007). A guide for naming research studies in Psychology. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 7(3), 847-862.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2011). Mplus user’s guide (5th ed.) Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998-2012). Mplus user’s guide (7ma ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.

Nordmarker, A., Hjärthag, F., Perrin-Wallqvist, R., & Archer, T. (2016). The roles of gender and personality factors in vandalism and scrawl-graffiti among Swedish adolescents. PsyCh Journal, 5(3), 180–190. doi:10.1002/pchj.133

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd Ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ridder, D. T. D. de, Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, F. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Taking Stock of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis of How Trait Self- Control Relates to a Wide Range of Behaviors. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 16(1), 76-99. doi: 10.1177/1088868311418749

Schmitt, N. (1996). Uses and abuses of coefficient alpha. Psychological Assessment, 8, 350-353.

Stanley, L. M., & Edwards, M. C. (2016). Reliability and Model Fit. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 76(6), 976–985. doi: 10.1177/0013164416638900

Stein, J. A., Lee, J. W., & Jones, P. S. (2006). Assessing Cross-Cultural Differences Through Use of Multiple-Group Invariance Analyses. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87(3), 249-258. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa8703_05

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self‐control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72, 271-324. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

Tillyer, M. S., Wilcox, P., & Fissel, E. R. (2018). Violence in schools: Repeat victimization, low self-control, and the mitigating influence of school efficacy. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 34(2), 609-632. doi: 10.1007/s10940-017-9347-8

Thornberry, T. P., & Krohn, M. D. (2000). The self-report method for measuring delinquency and crime. Criminal justice, 4(1), 33-83.

Torrente, G., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2012). Personality, Parenting and Deviance Among Spanish Adolescents. Anales de Psicología, 28(3), 654-664. doi: 10.6018/analesps.28.3.155951

Vazsonyi, A. T., & Jiskrova, G. K. (2018). On the development of self-control and deviance from preschool to middle adolescence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 56, 60-69. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2017.08.005

Vazsonyi, A. T., Pickering, L. E., Junger, M., & Hessing, D. (2001). An Empirical Test of a General Theory of Crime: A four-Nation Comparative Study of Self-Control and the Prediction of Deviance. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 38(2), 91-131.
doi: 10.1177/0022427801038002001

Vazsonyi, A. T., Wittekind, J. E. C., Belliston, L. M., & Loh, T. D. van (2004). Extending the General Theory of Crime to «The East»: Low Self-Control in Japanese Late Adolescents. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 20(3), 189-216. doi: 10.1023/B:JOQC.0000037731.28786.e3

Valentini, F., & Bruno, D. F. (2016). Variância média extraída e confiabilidade composta. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa. doi: 10.1590/0102-3772e322225

Walters, K. J., Simons, J. S., & Simons, R. M. (2018). Self-control demands and alcohol-related problems: Within- and between-person associations. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 32(6), 573-582. doi. 10.1037/adb0000387

Webb, V. J., Katz, C. M., & Decker, S. H. (2006). Assessing the validity of self-reports by gang members: results from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program. Crime Delinquen, 52(2),232–52. doi:10.1177/0011128705277972

Widaman, K. F., Ferrer, E., & Conger, R. D. (2010). Factorial invariance Within Longitudinal Structural Equation Models: Measuring the Same Construct Across Time. Child Development Perspectives, 4(1),10-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00110.x

Whittaker, T. A. (2012). Using the Modification Index and Standardized Expected Parameter Change for Model Modification. The Journal of Experimental Education, 80 (1), 26-44. doi: 10.1080/00220973.2010.531299

World Health Organization. (2015). Preventing youth violence: An overview of the evidence. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization Press.

Yu, C. Y., & Muthén, B. O. (2002). Evaluation of Model Fit Indices for Latent Variable Models with Categorical and Continuous Outcomes. Trabajo presentado en la conferencia de la Asociación Americana de Investigación Educativa, New Orleans.
How to Cite
Garrido, S. J., Arbach, K., Cupani, M., Ghío, F. B., Azpilicueta, A. E., & Morán, V. E. (2019, December 15). Psychometric properties of the normative deviance scale in youths. LIBERABIT. Revista Peruana De Psicología, 25(2), 233 - 249.
Brief Original